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Surrogacy law research project

Request for help from surrogate mothers, commissioning parents, practitioners and academics

Emma Walmsley is a second year PhD student from the University of Liverpool. She writes:

"Surrogacy is a rapidly developing and ethically controversial practice, which continues to affect an increasing number of countries and states around the world. In the UK, the Surrogacy Arrangements Act 1985 remains the principal statute regulating surrogacy but it is outdated and problematic. The Act prohibits commercial surrogacy but allows altruistic surrogacy arrangements. Current legislation has led to a range of problems for surrogates, commissioning parents and their children. These problems can be summarised as follows:

• The rules on parentage are problematic and confusing.

• Arrangements are unenforceable which creates uncertainty for parties.

• The conditions to apply for a 'Parental Order' in s.54 HFEA 2008 are unduly burdensome.

• Single parents are discriminated against because they cannot apply for a parental order."

Emma's PhD project aims to develop an alternative model of legislation which is to be informed by the views and experiences of surrogate mothers and commissioning parents. As part of her research she is asking for commissioning parents and surrogates to answer an anonymous questionnaire.

Commissioning parents: click here 

Surrogate mothers: click here 

Emma is also asking for professionals with an interest in surrogacy to be interviewed/ offer comments that can inform her proposed model of reform. Are you a practitioner/ academic? Can you help? Get in touch and email the researcher at .

More details about the project can be found here.